References: Vietnamese


U.S. Department of Health & Human Services - Office of Refugee Settlement Website:

Vietnamese Phonemic Inventory from


Ly, Hanh. (Social Worker at Immigrant and Refugee Community Organization, Portland, OR.). Interviewed February 28, 2007.

Li, Gertraude Roth. The Vietnamese: The Challenge of Sponsorship. Nyak, NY.: World Relief Corp, 1983.

Chanthavong, Hongsa. (Coordinator of the Asian Family Center, Portland, OR.). Interviewed March 1, 2007.

Hwa-Froelich, D.A., Westby, C.E. (2003). Frameworks of education: Perspectives of southeast Asian parents and head start staff. Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools , 34, 299-319. Retrieved February 3, 2007, from

Edwards, H.T., Hodson, B.W., & Hwa-Froelich, D. (2002). Characteristics of Vietnamese Phonology. American Journal and Speech-Language Pathology, 11, 264-273. Retrieved February 3, 2007, from

Tang, G. & Barlow, J. (2006). Characteristics of sound systems of monolingual Vietnamese-speaking children with phonological impairment. Clinical Linguistics & Phonetics, 20, 423-445.

Ducote, C. (2001). A speech-language pathologist in Vietnam. Viewed 5 February 2010,

Ducote, C. (2010). Speech therapy in Vietnam. Viewed 18 February 2010,

Trinh foundation: Recent history of speech language therapy in Vietnam. Viewed 8 February 2010,