References: African American Vernacular English (AAVE)


1. For relevant article summaries, written samples of AAVE, and links: 

2. For exercises to practice evaluating AAVE phonological characteristics: 

3. Regarding the history of African Americans in Portland Oregon: 

4. For descriptions of AAVE: 


Alim, H. (2004). You know my steez: An ethnographic and sociolinguistic study of styleshifting in a Black American speech community. Durham NC: Duke University Press 

Cole, P.& Taylor, O.(1990). Performance of Working Class African American Children on Three Tests of Articulation. Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools; v. 21, n. 3, p. 17176, Jul. 1990. 

DeBose, C. (1992). Codeswitching: Black English and Standard English in the African American Linguistic Repertoire. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development; v. 13, n. 12, p. 15767, 1992. Fasold, R. Shuy, R., eds. (1970). Teaching Standard English in the inner city. Washington, DC: Center for Applied Linguistics. 

Hewitt, R. (1986). White talk, black talk: Inter-racial friendship and communication amongst adolescents. Cambridge University Press. 

Norris, M.; et al. (1989). Adaptation of a Screening Test for Bilingual and Bidialectal Populations. Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools v. 20, n. 4, p. 38190, Oct 1989.

Padak, N.(1981). The Language and Educational Needs of Children Who Speak Black English. Reading Teacher; v. 36, n. 2, p. 14451, Nov. 1981. 

Speicher, B.; McMahon, S.(1992) Some African American Perspectives on Black English Vernacular. Language in Society v. 21, n. 3, p 383-407, Sept. 1992.