Pashto (Afghanistan)

Pashto

Pashto, also known as Afghani, is the first language spoken by approximately 75% of the population in Afghanistan (2009 CIA World Factbook). It is one of the two official languages of Afghanistan (the other is Dari). Pashto is an Indo-European language spoken primarily in Afghanistan and western Pakistan. There are approximately 60-70 million Pashto speakers worldwide. The Afghan National Anthem must be in Pashto according to the Constitution. There are 15 known dialects of Pashto; Southern Pashto is spoken mainly in Afghanistan.

Vowels

 

Front

Central

Back

Close

       i

 

            u

Mid

       e

             ə

            o

Open

 

             a

             ɑ

 

Pashto also includes the diphthongs /ai/, /əi/, /ɑw/, and /aw/.

Consonants

 

Labial

Dental

Alveolar

Retroflex

Postalveolar

Palatal

Velar

Uvular

Glottal

Nasal

m

n

 

ɳ

 

 

 

 

 

Plosive

p b

t̪ d̪

 

tɖ

 

 

k g

q

ʔ

Affricate

 

t͡s d͡z

 

 

t͡ʃ d͡ʒ

 

 

 

 

Fricative

f

 

s z

ʂʐ

ʃʒ

ç ʝ

x ɣ

 

h

Approximant

 

l

 

 

 

j

w

 

 

Rhotic

 

r

 

ɺ̢

 

 

 

 

 

 

Syntax

  • Pashto is a subject-object-verb language.
  • Adjectives come before nouns.
  • Nouns and adjectives are inflected for masculine & feminine, singular & plural, and direct, oblique I, oblique II, & vocative.
  • For past tense of all verbs, transitive verbs agree with the object of the sentence (it is an ergative language).