Hausa (Nigeria)

Please see Nigeria Country page for further information

Hausa

Phonology

  • Tonal language with 2 level tones which are high and low and 1 contoured tone, which is falling.
  • 32 consonants, 5 vowels and 2 dipthongs
  • Phonemes /f/ and /p/ are not differentiated.

Syntax

  • Strict subject-verb-object word ordering
  • Simple morphology; nouns inflect number and gender, verbs are marked by a CV suffix

Dialects

  • Dialects are dichotomized broadly into Eastern and Western Hausa with variations thereof.
  • Differences between dialects are mainly in pronunciation and vocabulary, affording speakers high inter-dialect intelligibility.


Yoruba

Phonology

  • Yoruba is a tonal language with 3 general tones; high, mid and low.
  • Tones may combine to produce a “rising” or “falling” quality.

Syntax

  • Subject-verb-object word order

Dialects

Three distinctive dialects include Northwest Yoruba, Southeast Yoruba and Central Yoruba. There are, however, between 12 and 26 dialects which fall on a continuum between these.


Igbo (Ibo)

Phonology

  • Consists of 8 vowels, 30 consonants and 2 tones
  • Sound system includes double articulation of consonants, most notably implosive labiovelars, including /kp/, /gb/, etc.

Syntax

  • Word order is generally subject-verb-object
  • Few morphological markers, as grammatical information is marked word-externally. Verbs are the exception as they are tense-marked. 

Dialects

  • There are 3 dialects of Igbo, which differ considerably from one another.

 

 

Original Contributor: Lindsay J. Shrader and Olawumi Ogunbinu-Peters, Winter 2012