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MLR 2010 Presentations

Presentations are available upon request in .pdf format by contacting Khanh Pham at

China MLR 2010-2 Delegate Presentations

Group 1: Coordinated Development of Urban and Rural Areas

Group 2: Public Participation and Coordination Among Agencies

Group 3: Sustainable Use of Natural Resources

Group 4: Sustainable Use of Land

China MLR 2010-1 Delegate Presentations

Group 1: Interagency Collaboration

Group 2: Comparative Analysis on Land Use policy between China and U.S.

Group 3: Public Participation in Management

Group 4: Living Standards for Rural Migrants

Group 5: Sustainable Use of Natural Resources

Summary of China's National General Land Use Planning Framework (2006-2020)

On October 6, 2009, China's State Council passed the new "National General Land Use Planning Framework (2006-2020)" proposed by the Ministry of Land and Resources. This is to replace the old version National General Land Use Planning published in 1997.

Following China's basic strategy in promoting rational land consumption and farmland protection, national level management of land development and conservation, and land use-related principles in "China Land Administration Act", this Framework states national land use strategies, specifies government's goals and regulatory tools in managing land use, and guides the society to conserve and utilize land resources in a rational manner. It is the strictest document in institutionalizing land management and is also an important guideline for implementing large-scale land use control and urban-rural planning and development.

The scope of the Framework is from 2005 to 2020 and covers all land areas of China except Hong Kong, Macao, and Taiwan.

This Framework includes seven chapters. The first chapter describes current land use condition and challenges. The second chapter outlines planning goals and five objectives. The following five chapters address approaches to each of the five objectives.

After the adoption and implementation of the 1997 National General Land Use Plan, land use control system has been set up and it is effective in controlling and guiding land use. Farmland protection, especially agricultural land protection, has been strengthened; second/third industry production rate per unit of developed land has increased; government investment in converting developed land back to farmland has been increased and basically reached the equilibrium between new development land and back-converted land; ecological environment has been improved.

However, challenges are still intense—China is still at a critical point that a large population depends on limited amount of exploitable land. In 2005, per capita agricultural land was only 1.4 mu (亩, less than a quarter acre), less than 40% of world average. Among all agricultural land, there is only one-third good quality land. Potential backup which could be converted to agricultural land is limited and mostly distributed in areas whose conditions do not fit conversion or development. Amount of prime agricultural land has been decreasing while the growth of industry land is at an accelerated rate. Waste of development land, urban or rural, permitted or not, can still be seen commonly. In certain areas, land degradation and pollution are severe. Illegal use/development of land is still a nationwide phenomenon.

By 2020, China's total population will reach 1.45 billion and urbanization rate will be 58%. Land resources, either farmland or developable land, face huge pressure. Following this projection, there are five objectives specified in this planning document:

1. For securing food supplies, economic safety, and social stability, the goal of the Framework is to maintain at least 1800 million mu (about 300 million acres) of farmland nationwide. The detailed figures are: 1818 million mu (299.5 million acres) by 2010; 1805 million mu (297.4 million acres) by 2020;

2. Protect and use farmland in a rational manner. Control non-farming development which occupies farmland; clarify the legal obligation of farmland; strengthen prime farmland protection; increase the efficiency of farmland use;
3. Economizing development land. Control the amount of new development; guide the structural adjustment of developed land; strengthen the management of residential land in rural area; increase the efficiency of infrastructure use; emphasize the control of urban-rural development boundary;
4. Balance land use and ecological development. Protect prime ecological land such as natural forest and grassland; strengthen the management of ecological environment of land; improve ecological environment according to particular local conditions;
5. Emphasize regional land use planning. Divide the nation into nine land use regions and strengthen land use control for those regions based on their unique land resources, current conditions, and potential; adopt region-specific regional land use policy; emphasize land use control at provincial level;
6. Ensure plan implementation. Strictly implement the goal-and-responsibility system for farmland protection and economization; strengthen the overall control function of general land use plan; develop and complete market adjustment mechanism for farmland protection and economization; advance land use planning legislation, adopt land standard and land use policy. This part also mentions the improvement of public involvement in planning decision-making.
Tables in appendix also provide figures for 2010 and 2020 for planned amount of different types of land such as agriculture, prime agriculture, development, and forest for the nation and each province.

The full Chinese version of the document can be found at the website of the Ministry of Land and Resources.