Some of the key references that have informed our research are listed below

Adamus, P., J. Morlan, and K. Verble. 2009. Manual for the Oregon Rapid Wetland Assessment Protocol (ORWAP). Version 2.0. Oregon Dept. of State Lands, Salem.

Adger, W N, K Brown and E L Tompkins 2006. The Political Economy of Cross-Scale Networks in
Resource Co-Management. Ecology & Society 10(2):9.

Agrawal A, and K. Redford. 2006. Poverty, Development, and Biodiversity Conservation: Shooting in the Dark? Wildlife Conservation Society, New York.

Alcamo, J., D. v. Vuuren, C. Ringler, W. Cramer, T. Masui, J. Alder, and K. Schulze. 2005. Changes in nature’s balance sheet: model-based estimates of future worldwide ecosystem services. Ecology and Society 10:Art. 19.

Anselin L, I. Syabri, and Y. Kho 2006. GeoDa: An introduction to spatial data analysis. Geographical Analysis 38(1):5-22.

Battin, J., M.W. Wiley, M.H. Ruckelshaus, R.N. Palmer, E. Korb, K.K. Bartz, and H. Imaki. 2007. Projected impacts of climate change on salmon habitat restoration. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 104:6720-6725.

Bennett, Elena M., Garry D. Peterson, and Line J. Gordon. 2009. Understanding relationships among multiple ecosystem services. Ecology Letters 12 (12): 1394-1404.

Berg, B.L. 2004. Qualitative Research Methods for the Social Sciences, 5th ed. Pearson: Boston. Bockstael, N.E., Freeman, A.M., Kopp, R.J., Portney, P.R. & Smith, V.K. 2000, On Measuring Economic Values for Nature, Journal of Environmental Science & Technology, 34(8): 1384-1389.

Boeder, M. and H. Chang. 2008. Multi-scale analysis of oxygen demand trend in an urbanizing Oregon watershed. Journal of Environmental Management 87(4): 567-581.

Boyd, M.S. 1996. Heat Source: stream temperature prediction. Master’s Thesis. Departments of Civil and
Bioresource Engineering, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon.

Broussard, W. and R.E. Turner. 2009. A century of changing land-use and water quality relationships in the continental US. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 7:302-307.

Brown, CJ and M Purcell 2005. There’s nothing inherent about scale: political ecology, the local trap, and
the politics of development in the Brazilian Amazon. Geoforum 36: 607-624.

Cash, D. W., W. N. Adger, F. Berkes, P. Garden, L. Lebel, P. Olsson, L. Pritchard, and O. Young, 2006: Scale and cross-scale dynamics: Governance and information in a multilevel world. Ecology and Society, 11, 12.

Chang, H. 2008a. Spatial analysis of water quality trends in the Han River basin, South Korea. Water Research 42: 3285-3304.

Chang, H. 2008b. Teaching water sustainability through visuals and student-based learning. Oregon English Journal 30(2): 48-51.

Chang, H. and Jung, I-W. 2010. Spatial and temporal changes in runoff caused by climate change in a large complex river basin. Journal of Hydrology 388(3-4): 186-207.

Cox, M.M., and J.P. Bolte. 2007. A spatially explicit network-based model for estimating stream temperature distribution. Environmental Modeling and Software, 22: 502-514.

Cramer, W., A. Bondeau, F. I. Woodward, I. C. Prentice, R. A. Betts, V. Brovkin, P. M. Cox, V. Fisher, J. A. Foley, A. D. Friend, C. Kucharik, M. R. Lomas, N. Ramankutty, S. Sitch, B. Smith, A. White, and C. Young-Molling. 2001. Global response of terrestrial ecosystem structure and function to CO2 and climate change: results from six dynamic global vegetation models. Global Change Biology 7:357- 373.

Cumming, G. S., D. H. M. Cumming, and C. L. Redman, 2006: Scale mismatches in social-ecological systems: Causes, consequences, and solutions. Ecology and Society 11: 14.

Daily, GC, Ed. 1997. Nature’s Services: Societal Dependence on Natural Ecosystems, Island Press, Washington, DC .

Davis, C. 2006. A Synthesis of Data and Methods across Scales to Connect Local Policy Decisions to Regional Environmental Conditions The Case of the Cascadia Scorecard. In W.V. Reid, F. Berkes, T. Wilbanks, D. Capistrano (eds). Bridging scales and knowledge systems. Concepts and applications in ecosystem assessment. Island Press, Washington, D.C.

de Chazal, J. and M.D.A. Rounsevell. 2009. Land-use and climate change within assessments of biodiversity change: A review. Global Environmental Change 19: 306-315

DeFries, R. S., J. A. Foley, and G. P. Asner. 2004. Land-use choices: balancing human needs and ecosystem function. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 2(5): 249-257.

Deschenes, O. and M. Greenstone. 2007. The economic impacts of climate change: Evidence from agricultural output and random fluctuations in weather, American Economic Review, 97( 1): 354-385.

Duh, J., Shandas, V., Chang, H., and George, L. 2008. Rates of urbanization and the resilience of air and water quality. Science of the Total Environment 400 (1-3): 238-256

Easterling, W.E. and C. Polsky. 2004. Crossing the Divide: Linking Global and Local Scales in Human- Environment Systems. Sheppard E. and R.B. McMaster, eds. In Scale and Geographic Inquiry: Nature, Society, and Method. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing.

Ervin, D., C. Runge, E. Graffy, W. Anthony, S. Batie, P. Faeth, T. Penny, and T. Warman, 1998, Agriculture and the Environment: A New Strategic Vision, Environment, 40 (6): 8-15, 35-40.

Ervin, D. 2005. Key Issues: Evaluation of Payments – Mid-term Evaluation of Rural Development Plans, in Evaluating Agri-Environmental Policies: Design, Practice and Results, OECD. Paris.

Fisher, A, M. Hanemann, M. J. Roberts, and W. Schlenker. 2009. Climate Change and Agriculture Reconsidered. Accessed at

Fisher, B., K. Turner, M. Zylstra, et al. 2008. Ecosystem Services and Economic Theory: Integration for Policy-Relevant Research. Ecological Applications 18(8): 2050-2067.

Fitzpatrick, J.J., Imhoff, J.C., Burgess, E.H. and Brashear, R.W. 2001. Assessment of Use of Hydrodynamic, Land-based Runoff, and Fate and Transport Models. Project 99-WSM-5 Final Report. Published by the Water Environment Federation, Alexandria, VA.

Fotheringham, A. S., C. Brunsdon, and M. Charlton. 2000. Quantitative Geography: Perspectives on Spatial Data Analysis. Sage Publications.

Francyk J. and H. Chang, 2009. Spatial analysis of Oregon water use, 1985-2005, Water Resources Management. 23(4): 755-774.

Frost, P.G.H. and I. Bond. 2008. The CAMPFIRE programme in Zimbabwe: Payments for wildlife services. Ecological Economics 65: 776-787

Gassman, P.W., Reyes, M.R., Green, C.H. and Arnold, J.G. 2007. The soil and water assessment tool: Historical development, applications, and future research directions. Transactions of the ASABE 50: 1211-1250.

Ghazoul, J. 2007. Challenges to the Uptake of the Ecosystem Service Rationale for Conservation. Conservation Biology 21 (6): 1651-1652.

HDR Engineering. April, 2008. Yamhill County Water Supply Analysis – Final Report to the Yamhill County Water Task Force.

Hanley, N., Shogren, J and White, B. 1997. Environmental economics in theory and practice. Macmillan, Basingstoke.

Hansen L, and D. Hellerstein. 2006. Conservation Program Design: Better Targeting, Better Outcomes, Economic Brief, U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Economic Research Service.

Hansen, A.J., R.L. Knight, J.M. Marzluff, S. Powell, K. Brown, P. Gude, and K. Jones. 2005. Effects of exurban development on biodiversity: patterns, mechanisms, and research needs. Ecological Applications 15(6): 1893-1905

Harris, J. M. 2006. Environmental and Natural Resource Economics. South Western. Cengage Learning. 2nd edition.

Hayhoe, K., D. Cayan, C. B. Field, P. C. Frumhoff, E. P. Maurer, N. L. Miller, S. C. Moser, S. H. Schneider, K. N. Cahill, E. E. Cleland, L. Dale, R. Drapek, R. M. Hanemann, L. S. Kalkstein, J. Lenihan, C. K. Lunch, R. P. Neilson, S. C. Sheridan, and J. H. Verville. 2004. Emissions pathways, climate change, and impacts on California. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 101:12422-12427.

Higgins, P.A.T. 2007. Biodiversity loss under existing land use and climate change: an illustration using northern South America. Global Ecology and Biogeography 16: 197-204.

Hutchinson, C.F., J.D. Unruh, and C.J. Bahre. 2000. Land use vs. climate change as causes of vegetation change: a study in SE Arizona. Global Environmental Change 10: 47-55.

Hulse, D., S. Gregory and J. Baker, eds. 2002. Willamette River Basin Planning Atlas: Trajectories of Environmental and Ecological Change. OSU Press, Corvallis.

Imhoff, J.C, J.L. Kittle Jr., M.R. Gray, and T.E. Johnson, 2007. Using the Climate Assessment Tool (CAT) in U.S. EPA BASINS integrated modeling system to assess watershed vulnerability to climate change. Water Science and Technology 56: 49-56

Jackson, R.B., E.G. Jobbagy, R Avissar et al. 2005. Trading Water for Carbon with Biological Carbon Sequestration. Science 310: 1944-1947.

Kareiva, P and M. Marvier. 2007. Conversation for the people - Pitting nature and biodiversity against people makes little sense. Many conservationists now argue that human health and well-being should be central to conservation efforts. Scientific American 297 (4): 50-57

Kareiva, P.K., H. Tallis, T.H. Ricketts, G.C. Daily, and S. Polasky. 2011. Natural Capital: theory & practice of mapping ecosystem services. Oxford University Press, Oxford, United Kingdom.

Keitt, J.H. 2009. Habitat conversion, extinction thresholds, and pollination services in agroecosystems. Ecological Applications: 19:1561-1573.

Knoche, S. and F. Lupi. 2007. Valuing deer hunting ecosystem services from farm landscapes. Ecological Economics 64: 313-320.

Koniak, G. and I. Noy-Meir. 2009. A hierarchical, multi-scale, management-responsive model of Mediterranean vegetation dynamics. Ecological Modelling 220:1148-1158.

Kremen, C. 2005. Managing ecosystem services: what do we need to know about their ecology? Ecology Letters 8: 468-479

Lam, N.S-N. 2004.Fractals and Scale in Environmental Assessment and Monitoring. Sheppard E. and R.B. McMaster, eds. In Scale and Geographic Inquiry: Nature, Society, and Method. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing.

Lambrinos, J.G. and Guzy, M. 2009. Linking landowners to ecosystem service markets using web-based quantification tools. Annual Meeting Ecological Society of America. Albuquerque, NM.

Lawler, J.J., Shafer, S.L., White, D., Kareiva, P., Maurer, E.P., Blaustein, A.R. & Bartlein, P.J. 2009b, Projected climate-induced faunal change in the Western Hemisphere. Ecology 90(3) 588-597.

Lawler, J.L., T.H. Tear, C. Pyke M.R. Shaw, et al. 2010. Resource management in a changing and uncertain climate. Frontiers in Ecology and Environment 8: 35–43.

Lebel, L, P Garden and M Imamura 2006. The politics of scale, position and place in the governance of water resources in the Mekong region. Ecology and Society 10(2): 18.

Lewis, David J., Andrew J. Plantinga, Erik Nelson, Stephen Polasky. 2010. The Efficiency of Voluntary Incentive Policies for Preventing Biodiversity Loss. Resource and Energy Economics 33: 192-211.

Lobell, D. B., and C. B. Field. 2007. Global scale climate–crop yield relationships and the impacts of recent warming. Environmental Research Letters 2: 014002.

Luedeling E., Zhang, M., Girvetz, EH. 2009. Climatic Changes Lead to Declining Winter Chill for Fruit and Nut Trees in California during 1950–2099. PLoS ONE 4(7): e6166.

Manson, S. M., H.A. Sander, D. Ghosh, J. M. Oakes, M. W. Orfield, W. J. Craig, T. F. Luce, E. Myott, S. Sun (2009). Parcel data for research and policy. Geography Compass 3 (2): 698–726.

Mendelsohn, R. & Dinar, A. 2009, Land Use and Climate Change Interactions, Annual Review of Resource Economics, 1(1)

Mendelsohn, R., Nordhaus, W.D. & Shaw, D. 1994, The Impact of Global Warming on Agriculture: A Ricardian Analysis, The American Economic Review, 84(4): 753-771.

Metzger, M.J., D. Schroter, R. Leemans, W.Cramer. 2008. A spatially explicit and quantitative vulnerability assessment of ecosystem service change in Europe. Regional Environmental Change 8:91-107

Munoz-Pina, C., A. Guevara, J.M. Torres and J. Brana. 2008. Paying for the hydrological services of Mexico’s forests: Analysis, negotiations and results. Ecological Economics 65: 725-736.

Millenium Ecosystem Assessment. 2005. Ecosystems and Human Well-being: Synthesis. Island Press, Washington D.C.

Naidoo, R. and T.H. Ricketts. 2006. Mapping the Economic Costs and Benefits of Conservation. PloS Biol 4(11): e360
National Research Council (NRC). 2005. Valuing Ecosystem Services: Toward better environmental decision-making. The National Academies Press. Washington DC.

Nature Editorial Board. 2009. Natural value (Editorial). Nature 457: 764.

Nelson, E., Polasky, S., Lewis, D.J., Plantinga, A.J., Lonsdorf, E., White, D., Bael, D. & Lawler, J.J. 2008. Efficiency of incentives to jointly increase carbon sequestration and species conservation on a landscape. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 105(28): 9471-9476.

Nelson, E. G. Mendoza, J. Regetz, et al. 2009. Modeling multiple ecosystem services, biodiversity conservation, commodity production, and tradeoffs at landscape scales. Frontiers in Ecology and Environment 7(1): 4-11

Nelson, K C, Palmer, M A, Pizzuto, J E, Moglen, G E, Angermeier, P L, Hilderbrand, R H, Dettinger, M D & Hayhoe, K 2009 Forecasting the combined effects of urbanization and climate change on stream ecosystems: from impacts to management options. Journal of Applied Ecology 46 154-63.

Nelson, K.C. and M.A. Palmer. 2007. Stream Temperature Surges Under Urbanization and Climate Change: Data, Models, and Responses. Journal of the American Water Resources Association 43(2): 440-452.

O'Brien, K., L. Sygna, and J. E. Haugen, 2004: Vulnerable or resilient? A multi-scale assessment of climate impacts and vulnerability in Norway. Climatic Change, 64: 193-225.

O’Neill, R.V., DeAngelis, D.L., Waide, J.B, Allen, T.F.H. 1986. A Hierarchical Concept of Ecosystems, Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Oregon Dept. of Environmental Quality (ODEQ). June 2009. Willamette Basin Rivers and Streams Assessment.
Oregon Dept. of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW). 2006. The Oregon Conservation Strategy.

Ozawa, C.P. 1996. Science in Environmental Conflicts. Sociological Perspectives, 39 (2): 219-230.

Palmer, M.A., D.P. Lettenmaier, N.L. Poff, S.L.Postel, B. Richter, Warner, R. 2009. Climate change and river ecosystems: Protection and adaptation options. Environmental Management. 44: 1053-1068.

Parkhurst, G.M., and J.F. Shogren. 2007. Spatial incentives to coordinate contiguous habitat. Ecological Economics 64: 344-355.

Pereira, H.M, T. Domingos and L. Vicente. 2005. Assessing Ecosystem Services at Different Scales in the Portugal Millenium Ecosystem Assessment. Chapter 3 in Reid, W.V. et al, 2005.

Pfirman, S. and the AC-ERE 2003, Complex Environmental Systems: Synthesis for Earth, Life, and Society in the 21st Century, A report summarizing a 10-year outlook in environmental research and education for the National Science Foundation, 68 pp.

Phillips, J.D. 2004. Independence, Contingency and Scale Linkage in Physical Geography. in Sheppard, E. and R.B. McMaster, eds. Scale and Geographic Inquiry: Nature, Society, and Method. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing.

Pickett, S. T. A., and M. L. Cadenasso. 1999. Landscape ecology: spatial heterogeneity in ecological systems. In: S. I.

Dodson, F. H. Allen, S. R. Carpenter, K. Elliot, A. R. Ives, R. L. Jeanne, J. F. Kitchell, N. E. Langston, and M. G. Turner (eds.). Readings in Ecology. Oxford University Press. pp. 124-131.

Polasky, S., Nelson, E., Camm, J., Csuti, B., Fackler, P., Lonsdorf, E., Montgomery, C., White, D., Arthur, J., Garber-Yonts, B., Haight, R., Kagan, J., Starfield, A. & Tobalske, C. 2008, Where to put things? Spatial land management to sustain biodiversity and economic returns, Biological Conservation, 141(6): 1505-1524.

Polasky, Stephen, Erik Nelson, Derric Pennington, and Kris Johnson. 2010. The Impact of Land-Use Change on Ecosystem Services, Biodiversity and Returns to Landowners: A Case Study in the State of Minnesota. Environmental and Resource Economics 48: 219-242.

Primozich, D. 2008. Developing the Willamette Ecosystem Marketplace. Willamette Partnership.

Primozich, D.,B. Cochran, M. Martin. 2009. Counting on the Environment—Creating Tools and a Framework for Ecosystem Markets. Oregon Insider. May, 2009.

Praskievicz, S. and Chang. H. Effects of climate change and urban development on runoff and water quality in the Tualatin River basin, Annals of the Association of American Geographers 101: 249-271. 

Rasbash J., W. Browne, H. Goldstein, M. Yang, I. Plewis, M. Healy, G. Woodhouse, D. Draper, I. Langford, and T. Lewis. 2000. A user’s guide to MLwiN Institute of Education. University of London: London.

Raymond, C. M., B. A. Bryan, D. H. MacDonald, A. Cast, S. Strathearn, A. Grandgirard, and T. Kalivas, 2009: Mapping community values for natural capital and ecosystem services. Ecological Economics, 68: 1301-1315.

Redford, K.H. and W.M. Adams. 2009. Payment for Ecosystem Services and the Challenge of Saving Nature. Conservation Biology 23(4): 785-787.

Robertson, M. M. 2006. Emerging Markets in Ecosystem Services: Trends in a Decade ofEntrepreneurial Wetland Banking. Frontiers in Ecology and Environmental Science 6(4): 297-302.

Rosenzweig, C., and M. L. Parry. 1994. Potential impact of climate change on world food supply. Nature 367:133-138.

Salathé, Jr., E.P., Mote, P.W., and Wiley, M.W. 2007: Review of scenario selection and downscaling methods for the assessment of climate change impacts on hydrology in the United States Pacific Northwest. International Journal of Climatology 27, 1611-1621.

Schröter, D., W. Cramer, R. Leemans, I. C. Prentice, M. B. Araújo, N. W. Arnell, A. Bondeau, H. Bugmann, T. R. Carter, C. A. Gracia, A. C. de la Vega-Leinert, M. Erhard, F. Ewert, M. Glendining, J. I. House, S. Kankaanpää, R. J. T. Klein, S. Lavorel, M. Lindner, M. J. Metzger, J. Meyer, T. D. Mitchell, I. Reginster, M. Rounsevell, S. Sabaté, S. Sitch, B. Smith, J. Smith, P. Smith, M. T. Sykes, K. Thonicke, W. Thuiller, G. Tuck, S. Zaehle, and B. Zierl. 2005. Ecosystem service supply and vulnerability to global change in Europe. Science 310:1333-1337.

Silver, J. J., 2008 Weighing in on Scale: Synthesizing Disciplinary Approaches to Scale in the Context of Building Interdisciplinary Resource Management. Society & Natural Resources, 21, 921-929.

Simpson, R. D., M. Toman and R. Ayers, eds. 2005. Scarcity and Growth Revisited: Natural Resources and the Environment in the New Millennium, Washington, DC: Resources for the Future Press.

Stevens, C.J., I. Fraser, J. Mitchley and M.B. Thomas. 2007. Making ecological science policy-relevant: issues of scale and disciplinary integration. Landscape Ecology 22: 799-809

Stewart, I. T., D. R. Cayan, and M. D. Dettinger. 2005. Changes toward earlier streamflow timing across western North America. Journal of Climate 18: 1136-1155.

Tallis, H., P. Kareiva, M. Marvier, and A. Chang. 2008a. An ecosystem services framework to support both practical conservation and economic development. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 105 (28): 9457–9464

Tallis, H., T., Ricketts, T., Ennaanay, D., Nelson, E., Vigerstol, K., Mendoza, G., Wolny, S., Olwero, N., Aukema, J., Foster, J., Forrest, J., Cameron, D. 2008b. InVEST 1.003 beta User’s Guide. The Natural Capital Project, Stanford.

The Nature Conservancy. 2008. Willamette Synthesis Map. Portland, Oregon.
Tilman, D. 1999. Global environmental impacts of agricultural expansion: The need for sustainable and efficient practices. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 96: 5995-6000
Tualatin River Watershed Council (TRWC). 1999. Tualatin River Watershed Action Plan.

Tualatin River Watershed Council. 2003.Lower Gales Creek Habitat Enhancement Plan. (

U.S. Congress, Office of Technology Assessment. 1995. Targeting Environmental Priorities in Agriculture: Reforming Program Strategies, OTA-ENV-640. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office.

US Department of Agriculture (USDA), 2009 National Agricultural Statistical Service
Verburg, P H and A Veldkamp 2004. Projecting land use transitions at forest fringes in the Philippines at two spatial scales. Landscape Ecology 19: 77-98.

von Hagen, B. and M.S. Burnett. 2007. Emerging Markets for Carbon Stored by Northwest Forests. Chapter 8 in Forests, Carbon and Climate Change-A Synthesis of Science Findings.

Walker, B., C.S. Holling, S.R. Carpenter, and A. Kinzig. 2004. Resilience, Adaptability and Transfromability in Social-Ecological Systems. Ecology and Society 9(2)

Walsh, S.J., K.A. Crews-Meyer, T.W. Crawford and W.F. Welsh. 2004. Population and Environmental Interactions: Spatial Considerations in Landscape Characterization and Modeling. Sheppard, E. and R.B. McMaster, eds. In Scale and Geographic Inquiry: Nature, Society, and Method. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing.

Wendland, K.J., M. Honzak, R. Portela, et al. in press. Targeting and implementing payments for ecosystem services: Opportunities for bundling biodiversity conservation with carbon and water services in Madagascar. Ecological Economics 69: 2093-2107.

Wilbanks, T.J. 2006. How scale matters: some concepts anf dindings. In W.V. Reid, F. Berkes, T. Wilbanks, D. Capistrano (eds). Bridging scales and knowledge systems. Concepts and applications in ecosystem assessment. Island Press, Washington, D.C.

Wilby, R.L., and Harris, I. 2006. A framework for assessing uncertainties in climate change impacts: Low-flow scenarios for the River Thames, UK. Water Resources Research 42, W02419.

Willamette Partnership. 2009. Ecosystem Credit Accounting: Pilot General Crediting Protocol, Willamette Basin Version 1.0.

Willamette Restoration Initiative. 2004. Willamette Subbasin Plan

Wu, J., 1999. Hierarchy and scaling: extrapolating information along a scaling ladder. Canadian Journal of Remote Sensing 25, 367–380.

Wu, J. and J.L. David. 2002. A spatially explicit hierarchical approach to modeling complex ecological systems: theory and applications. Ecological Modelling 153:7-26

Wunscher, T., S. Engel and S. Wunder. 2008. Spatial targeting of payments for environmental services-a tool for boosting conservation benefits. Ecological Economics 64: 822-833

Yamhill Basin Council (YBC). 2005. Action Plan for the Yamhill River and Chehalem Creek Watersheds.

Yamhill Soil and Water Conservation District (YSWCD). 2007. Strategic Plan 2007-2012.

Zaehle, S., A. Bondeau, T.R. Carter, W. Cramer, M. Erhard, I.C. Prentice, I. Reginster, M.D.A. Rounsevell, S. Sitch, B. Smith, P.C. Smith, and M. Sykes. 2007. Projected Changes in Terrestrial Carbon Storage in Europe under Climate and Land-use Change, 1990-2100. Ecosystems 10: 380- 401.

Zermoglio, M. F., A. van Jaarsveld, W. Reid, J. Romm, O. Biggs, T. X. Yue, and L. Vicente. 2005. The multiscale approach. In Millennium Ecosystem Assessment, Ecosystems and human well-being: Multiscale assessment. Washington, DC: Island Press.

Zhang, W., T.H. Ricketts, C. Kremen, K. Carney, S.M. Swinton. 2007. Ecosystem services and dis-services to agriculture. Ecological Economics 64: 253-260.