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Leslie B. Hammer, Ph.D., Professor, Industrial/Organizational Psychology Director, Occupational Health Psychology Program

Department of Psychology
317 Cramer Hall
Portland State University
P.O. Box 751
Portland,OR 97207-0751
phone (503) 725-3971
fax (503) 725-3904

Peer Reviewed Journal Articles 
Classes Taught
Occupational Health Psychology
Dual-Earner Couples in the Sandwiched Generation

Current Research:

Center for Work-Family, Stress, Safety & Health at PSU funded by a grant from NIOSH.

Work, Family & Health Network Study

Oregon Health Workforce Project: A NIOSH Center of Excellence

Starting in 2013: Veteran Supervisory Supportive Study




Selected Publications

Balzer, W. K., Sulsky, L. M., Hammer, L. B., & Sumner, K. E. (1992). Task information, cognitive information, or functional validity information:  Which components of cognitive feedback affect performance?  Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 53, 35-54.

Balzer, W. K., Hammer, L. B., Sumner, K. E., Birchenough, T. R., Parham, S. E., & Raymark, P. H. (1994). Effects of cognitive feedback components, display format, and elaboration on performance. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 58, 369-385.

Hammer, L. B., & Nguyen, H. N. (1995).  The effects of type of child care arrangement and satisfaction with care on absenteeism at an urban university.  College and University Personnel Association Journal, 46, 19-22.       

Bauer, T. N., & Hammer, L. B. (1996).  Help received during the journal article writing process: The outcomes of quality and quantity.  Journal of Social Behavior and Personality, 11, 213-224.

Hammer, L. B., & Stone-Romero, E. F. (1996).  The effects of mood state and favorability of feedback on reactions to performance feedback.  Perceptual and Motor Skills, 83, 923-934.

Hammer, L., Allen, E., & Grigsby, T. (1997). Work-family conflict in dual-earner couples: Within-individual and crossover effects of work and family.  Journal of Vocational Behavior, 50, 185-203.

Hammer, L. B., & Barbera, K. M. (1997).  Towards an integration of alternative work schedules and human resource systems: Recommendations for research and practice.  Human Resource Planning, 20, 28-36.

Hammer, L. B., Grigsby, T. G., & Woods, S. (1998).  The conflicting demands of work, family, and school among students at an urban university.  Journal of Psychology, 132, 220-226.

Ingersoll-Dayton, B., Neal, M. B., & Hammer, L. B. (2001). Aging parents helping adult children: The experience of the sandwiched generation. Family Relations, 50, 262-271.

Brockwood, K. J., Hammer, L. B., Neal, M. B., & Colton, C. L. (2002). Effects of accommodations made at home and at work on wives’ and husbands’ family and job satisfaction. Journal of Feminist Family Therapy, 13, 41-64.

Hammer, L. B., Bauer, T. N., & Grandey, A. (2003). Work-family conflict and work-related withdrawal behaviors. Journal of Business and Psychology, 17, 419-436.

Hunthausen, J. M., Truxillo, D. M., Bauer, T. N., & Hammer, L. B. (2003). A field study of frame-of-reference effects on personality test validity. Journal of Applied Psychology, 88, 545-551.

Ingersoll-Dayton, B., Neal, M. B., Ha, J., & Hammer, L. B. (2003). Redressing inequity in parent care among siblings. Journal of Marriage and Family, 65, 201-212.

Ingersoll-Dayton, B., Neal, M. B., Ha, J., & Hammer, L. B. (2003). Collaboration Among Siblings Providing Care for   Older Parents. Journal of Gerontological Social Work, 40, 51-66.

Huang, Y. E., Hammer, L. B., Neal, M. B., & Perrin, N. (2004). The Relationship Between Work-to-Family and Family- to-Work Conflict: A Longitudinal Study. Journal of Family and Economic Issues, 25, 79-100.

Hammer, L. B., Cullen, J. C., Neal, M. B., Sinclair, R. R., & Shafiro, M. (2005). The Longitudinal Effects of Work-Family Conflict and Positive Spillover on Depressive Symptoms Among Dual Earner Couples. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 10, 138-154.

Sahibzada, K., Hammer, L. B., Neal, M. B., & Kuang, D. C. (2005). The Moderating Effects of Work-Family Role Combinations and Work-Family Organizational Culture on the Relationship between Family-Friendly Workplace Supports and Job Satisfaction.  Journal of Family Issues, 26, 1-20.

Hammer, L. B., Neal, M. B., Newsom, J., Brockwood, K. J., & Colton, C. (2005). A longitudinal study of the effects of dual-earner couples’ utilization of family-friendly workplace supports on work and family outcomes. Journal of Applied Psychology, 90, 799-810.

Hanson,G., Hammer, L. B., & Colton, C. (2006). Development and validation of a multidimensional scale of work-family positive spillover. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 11, 249-265.

Cullen, J. C., & Hammer, L. B. (2007). Developing and testing a theoretical model linking work-family conflict to employee safety. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 12, 266-278.

Shafiro, M. V., Hanson, G. C., Truxillo, D. M., & Hammer, L. B. (2007). Research tools for the practicing manager: Employee reactions to a reduction in benefit-related compensation: A fairness perspective. The Psychologist- Manager Journal, 10, 105-125.

Hammer, L. B., & Neal, M. B. (2008). Sandwiched Generation Caregivers: Prevalence,Characteristics, and Outcomes. The Psychologist-Manager Journal, 11, 93-112.

Kelly, E., Kossek, E., Hammer, L.,   Durham, M. , Bray, J., Chermack, K., Murphy, L., Kaskubar, D. (2008). Getting there from here: Research on the effects of work-family initiatives on work-family conflict and business outcomes. The Academy of Management Annals, 2:1, 305-349.

Kossek, E. E., & Hammer, L. B. (November, 2008). Work/Life Training for Supervisors Gets Big Results. Harvard Business Review. Cullen, J. C., Hammer, L. B., Neal, M. B., & Sinclair, R. R. (2009). Development of a typology of dual-earner couples in the  sandwiched generation. Journal of Family Issues, 30, 458-483.

Pines, A. M., Hammer, L. B., Neal, M. B. (2009). "Sandwiched Generation" Couples: Across-cultural, cross-gender comparison. Praciques Psychologique, 15, 225-237.

Mortazavi, S., Pedhiwala, N., Shafiro, M., & Hammer, L. B. (2009). Work-family conflict related to culture and gender. Community, Work, and Family. 12, 251-273.

Hammer, L. B., Kossek, E. K., Yragui, N., Bodner, T., & Hanson, G. (2009).Development and Validation of a Multidimensional Measure of Family Supportive Supervisor Behaviors (FSSB). Journal of Management, 837-856.

Johnson, J., Truxillo, D. M., Erdogan, B., Bauer, T. N., & Hammer, L. B., & (2009).Perceptions of Overall Fairness: Are Effects on Job Performance Moderated by Leader-Member Exchange? Human Performance, 22: 5, 432-449.

Neal, M. B., & Hammer, L. B. (2010). Dual-Earner Couples in the Sandwiched Generation: Effects of Coping Strategies Over Time. The Psychologist-Manager Journal, 12, 205-234. 

Davidson, O.B., Eden, D., Westman, M., Cohen-Charash, Y., Hammer, L.B., Kluger, A.N., Krause, M., Maslach, C., Driscoll, M., Perrewe, P.L., Quick, J.C. Rosenblatt, Z., & Spector, P.E. (2010). Sabbatical Leave: Who Gains and How Much? Jounal of Applied Psychology, 95, 953-964.

Hammer, L. B., Kossek, E. E., Anger, W. K., Bodner, T., & Zimmerman, K. (2011), Clarifying Work-Family Intervention 
Processes: The Roles of Work-Family Conflict and Family Supportive Supervisors Behaviors. Journal of Applied 
Psychology, 96, 134 - 150. 

Kossek, E. E., Pichler, S., Bodner, T., & Hammer, L. B. (2011). Workplace Social Support and Work-Family Conflict: A Meta-Analysis Clarifying the Influence of General and Work-Family Specific Supervisor and Organizational Support. Personnel Psychology, 64, 289-313.

Sorensen, G., Landsbergis, P., Hammer, L., Amick, B., Linnan, L., Yancey, A., Welch, L., Goetzel, R., Flannery, K, Pratt, C., and the Workshop Working Group on Worksite Chronic Disease Prevention (2011). Preventing   chronic disease at the workplace: A workshop report and recommendations. American Journal of Public   Health, 101, S196-S207.

Pines, A.M., Neal, M.B., Hammer, L.B., & Icekson, T. (2011) Job Burnout and Couple Burnout in Dual-Earner Couples in the Sandwiched Generation. Social Psychology Quarterly, 74(4) 361-386.

Lapierre, L. L.,Hammer, L. B., Truxillo, D. M., Murphy, L. A. (2012). Family interference with Work and Workplace 
Cognitive Failure: The Mitigation Role of Recovery Experiences. Journal of Vocational Behavior.

Bray, J., Kelly, E., Hammer, L. B., Almeida, D., Dearing, J., King R., Buxton, O. (2013). An Integrative, multilevel, and transdisciplinary research approach to challenges of work, family, and health. RTI Press, publication No. MR-0024-1303. Research Triangle Park, NC: RTI Press. Retrieved from

Hammer, L. B., Kossek, E. E., Bodner, T., & Crain, T. (2013). Measurement Development  and Validation of the Family Supportive Supervisor Behavior Short-form (FSSB-SF). Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 18, 285-296.

Books and Book Chapters

Brockwood, K. J., Hammer, L. B., Neal, M. B., & Colton, C. L., (2002). Effects of accommodations made at home and at work on wives' and husbands' family and job satisfaction. In T.S. Zimmerman, T.S. (Ed). Balancing Family and Work: Special Considerations in Feminist Therapy. New York: Haworth Press.

Hammer, L. B., Colton, C. L., Caubet, S., & Brockwood, K. B. (2002). The unbalanced life: Work and family conflict. In J. C. Thomas & M. Hersen (Eds.). Handbook of Mental Health in the Workplace (pp. 83-101). Newbury Park: Sage Publications.               

Hammer, L. B., Cullen, J. C., & Shafiro, M. (2006). Work-Family Best Practices. In F. Jones, R. Burke, & M. Westman (Eds).Work-life balance: A psychological perspective (pp. 261-275). East Sussex, UK: Psychology Press.

Hammer, L. B., Cullen, J. C., Marchand, G., Dezsofi, A. (2005). Reducing the Negative Impact of Work-Family Conflict on Military Personnel: Individual Coping Strategies and Multi-Level Interventions. In. T. Britt, A. Adler, & C. Castro (Eds.). Military life: The psychology of serving in peace and combat. Westport, CT: Greenwood Publishing Group, Inc.

Neal, M. B., Hammer, L. B., & Morgan, D. (2005). Mixed methodologies. In M. Pitt-Catsouphes, M., Kossek, E. E., & Sweet, S. (Eds.). Handbook of work and family: Multidisciplinary perspectives and approaches.  Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.

Neal, M. B., & Hammer, L. B. (2007). Working couples caring for children and aging parents: Effects on Work and well-being. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.

Hammer, L. B., Kossek, E. E., Zimmerman, K., & Daniels, R. (2007). Clarifying the construct of family supportive supervisory behaviors (FSSB): A Multilevel perspective. In P. L. Perrewe and D. C. Ganster (Eds.). Research in occupational stress and well-being (Vol. 6, pp. 171-211). Amsterdam: Elsevier Ltd.

Hammer, L.B., & Zimmerman, K. L. (2011). Quality of Work Life. In S. Zedeck (Ed.), APA Handbook of Industrial and Organizational Psychology, Vol. 3, (pp. 399-431). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

Landsbergis, P. A., Sinclair, R., Dobson, M., Hammer, L. B., Jauregui, M., LaMonagne, A. D., Olson, R., Schnall, P. L., Stellman, J., Warren, N. (2011). Occupational Health Psychology (pp.1087-1130). In The Occupational Environment: Its Evaluation, Control, and Management (3rd edition), Fairfax, VA: American Industrial Hygiene Association.

Zimmerman, K.L., Hammer, L.B. (2010). Positive Spillover:  Where have we been and where are we going?  In Houdmont, J. & Leka, S. (Eds).  Contemporary occupational health psychology:  Global perspectives on research, education, and practice (Vol. I pp. 272-295). Chichester, England: Wiley-Blackwell.

Pines, A. M., Hasan, Y. Hammer, L., & Neal, M. (2010). Working couples of the "Sandwiched Generation" Israel. In V. Milbauer. & L. Kulik (Eds.) working Families -Parents in the work market in Israel. Chapter 10. Tel-Aviv: Peles.

Zimmerman, K, Hammer, L.B., & Crain, T. (2011).  Family-Supportive Culture as a Moderator of the Impact of Work-Family Conflict on Emotional Exhaustion in Educators.  In Rossi, A.M. Perrewe, P. & Meurs, J. (Eds). Stress and Quality of Working Life (Vol. 3). Charlotte, NC: IAP.

Sinclair, R. R., Probst, T. M., Hammer, L. B., & Schaffer, M. M. (2013). Low income families  and occupational health: Implications for work-family conflict research and practice. In A. Antoniou & C. Cooper, (Eds.). The Psychology of the Recession on the Workplace (pp. 176-195). Northampton, MA: Edward Elgar.

Neal, M. B., Hammer, L. B., Pines, M. A., Bodner, T. E., & Cannon, M. L. (Forthcoming). Working Caregivers in the “Sandwiched Generation.” In R. Burke, J. Field, & C. Cooper (Eds). Handbook on Aging, Work & Society. Newbury Park: Sage Publications.

Crain, T. L., & Hammer, L. B. (2013). Work-family enrichment: A systematic review of antecedents, outcomes, and mechanisms. In A. B. Bakker (Ed.), Advances in positive organizational psychology (pp. 303-328). Bingley, UK: Emerald.

Hammer, L. B., Van Dyck, S. E., & Ellis, A. (forthcoming). Organizational policies and practices supportive of work-life integration. In D. Major & R. Burke (Eds.), Handbook of work-life integration of professionals: Challenges and opportunities. UK: Edward Elgar.


Hammer, L. B. & Demsky, C. A. (forthcoming). Work-life balance. In A. Day, K. Kelloway, & J. J. Hurrell, Jr. (Eds.), Workplace well-being: Building positive and psychologically healthy workplaces. Wiley Publications.