CTS Seminar Summaries
Since Fall 2000, The Center for Transportation Studies' Transportation Seminar Series has served as an important resource for those involved in urban studies and planning. The series, which is free, open to the public, and streamed live online, covers a host of the most current topics related to the field.
Beginning from Fall 2002, the seminars are all archived and available as streamed media and downloadable files. We encourage you to watch them, and to enhance your knowledge in your areas of interest.
IBPI has compiled a list of past seminars that are relevant to bicycle and pedestrian issues. Below you'll find links to the seminar streams, as well as descriptions of the content contained within each one.
How Do People Choose a Travel Mode? Factors Associated with Routine Walking & Bicyling
Presented by Robert Schneider, UC Berkeley
May 6, 2011
Walking and bicycling are being promoted as transportation options that can increase the livability and sustainability of communities, but the automobile remains the dominant mode of transportation in all United States metropolitan regions. In order to change travel behavior, researchers and practitioners need a greater understanding of the mode choice decision process, especially for walking and bicycling.
This presentation summarizes dissertation research on factors associated with walking and bicycling for routine travel purposes, such as shopping. More than 1,000 retail pharmacy store customers were surveyed in 20 San Francisco Bay Area shopping districts in fall 2009, and 26 follow-up interviews were conducted in spring and summer 2010. Mixed logit models showed that walking was associated with shorter travel distances, higher population densities, more street tree canopy coverage, and greater enjoyment of walking. Bicycling was associated with shorter travel distances, more bicycle facilities, more bicycle parking, and greater enjoyment of bicycling. Respondents were more likely to drive when they perceived a high risk of crime, but automobile use was discouraged by higher employment densities, smaller parking lots, and metered on-street parking. Interviews suggested a five-step theory of how people choose travel modes. Walking and bicycling could be promoted within each step: awareness and availability (through individual/social marketing programs), basic safety and security (through pedestrian and bicycle facility improvements and education and enforcement efforts), convenience (through higher-density, mixed land uses and limited automobile parking), enjoyment (through street trees and supportive culture), and habit (through roadway and parking pricing). Click to Play.
Sam Baek and the Jajeongeo: Visiting the Bike City of Korea
Presented by Tara Goddard
January 14, 2011
City of Davis Bicycle and Pedestrian Coordinator Tara Goddard visited Sangju, South Korea as part of a "sister city" delegation. Sangju is the "Bike City" of Korea, with a bicycle mode share approximately that of Davis and Portland combined. Tara shares photos and lessons learned from that trip, compares the bicycle facilities of Sangju with that of Davis and Portland, and discusses opportunities for future bicycle research in East Asia. Click to Play.
From Spokes to Sprockettes: A History of Women and the Bicycle
Presented by Jennifer Dill
Affiliation: Portland State University
December 3, 2010
Professor Jennifer Dill covers the culture of women bicycling, spanning back over 100 years. The presentation is accompanied by slides, quotes, and video. Click to Play.
Overcoming Barriers to Bicycling in Low-Income and Minority Communities
Presented by Lynn Weigand and Alison Graves
Affiliations: Portland State University, IBPI; Community Cycling Center - respectively
April 30, 2010
The Understanding Barriers to Bicycling project is a community needs assessment to understand the unique cultural and economic barriers to bicycling encountered by communities of color and low-income community members. In this presentation, Lynn Weigand and Alison Graves present the results of the project's surveys and focus groups. Click to Play.
Emerging Implications of Electric Bicycles
Presented by Geoff Rose
Affiliation: Monash Sustainability Institute
May 21, 2010
A variety of types of electric bicycles are now available to consumers in America and around the world. While there has been strong uptake of these vehicles in China, there remains uncertainty in other markets about their ultimate potential as a transportation mode. The technology is evolving in ways that are likely to better meet traveller's needs and the growth of this mode presents both opportunities and challenges. Since they have implications for transportation policy, planning and operations it is appropriate for the transportation profession to consider these vehicles carefully. This seminar will review developments and emerging issues with this form of transportation technology. View presentation slides.
European Bicycle and Pedestrian Planning (Scan Tour Report)
Presented by Ed Fischer
Affiliation: Oregon DOT
January 29, 2010
ODOT State Traffic Engineer, Ed Fischer, visited Europe in May 2009 on a scan tour of bicycle and pedestrian facilities. He visited Denmark, Sweden, Germany, Switzerland, and the UK. The general goal of this tour was to see which policies and practices could be transferable to the US, plus which engineering and design practices could be adopted here. He shows a large number of examples of innovative treatments that are commonplace in Europe. He also goes over some evaluation programs for reporting performance and progress. He ends the seminar with recommendations of policies to implement in the US. View presentation slides.
Creating a City of Cyclists: What We Can Learn from Copenhagen
Presented by Niels Jensen
Affiliation: City of Copenhagen Traffic and Road Department
October 2, 2009
Copenhagen is particularly renowned for having a robust cycling community, and a strong cycling network to support it. In this seminar, Niels Jensen discusses how infrastructure - namely, cycletracks and intersections - affects a cyclist’s [perception of] safety. He also talks about the goals for Copenhagen’s future – how they will plan for the various different types of cyclists that will be traveling in increased numbers. Click to Play.
Pedaling Revolution: How Cyclists are Changing American Cities
Presented by Jeff Mapes
Affiliation: The Oregonian
June 5, 2009
Jeff Mapes, reporter for The Oregonian, goes over the topics covered in his new book, Pedaling Revolution: How Cyclists Are Changing American Cities. He provides examples of individuals (often politicians) who have played important roles in the growth of bicycling as a popular mode of transportation. He also talks about the popularity of bicycling has varied over the decades; some times have been more welcoming and conducive to cycling than others. Click to Play.
Bicycling in Davis, CA: Rise and Maturation of Bicycle Engineering, Advocacy, and Policy from 1960s - Present
Presented by Ted Buehler
October 24, 2009
Davis, California is a 3 mile by 7 mile university town that boasts an exceptional number of bicyclists. In this presentation, Ted Buehler discusses his research into the history of bicycling in Davis, and the various reasons for why a culture of bicycling has thrived there. For his study, he looked at Davis’ bicycle policies over the years, as well as citizen lobbies and activism, and notable infrastructure. Much of the design standards that make up Davis’ network were adopted in the ‘60s and ‘70s. Click to Play.
Where Do People Bicycle? The Role of Infrastructure in Determining Bicycling Behavior
Presented by Jennifer Dill
Affiliation: Portland State University
May 16, 2009
In this presentation, Professor Jennifer Dill discusses phase 2 of her Bike-GPS study. The main questions posed for the research are: How does the built environment influence bicyclist behavior? And, what routes do bicyclists take (what infrastructure do they use)? She discusses the phases of her project – a phone survey, and (the focus of this presentation) GPS data collection. GPS ridership data was collected from 164 participants. She goes into detail about the GPS device and software that was used. The data collected shows riders within the inner Portland area, and how (routes), when (weather), and why (trip purpose) they take trips by bicycle. She then goes into detail about the findings. The findings also indicate various barriers to bicycling (traffic, access to bicycle networks, impressions of safety, etc.). She talks about next steps for the data (see Joe Broach’s May 28, 2010 presentation). The presention concludes with a robust Q&A session. Click to Play.
Bicycling in London: Innovations, Outreach, and Progress
Presented by Steve Durrant
Affiliation: Alta Planning + Design
January 11, 2008
Steve Durrant of Alta Planning + Design has spent a lot of time working as a landscape architect in London. In this presentation, he shares his experiences working with all the different cycling organizations in London and throughout England. The country contains a number of active and influential cycling organizations and partnerships, such as Cycling England, Sustrans, CTC, Cycle Training UK, and Transport for London. He details each organization’s interests, agendas, approaches, and accomplishments. The seminar is graphically supplemented, and casual in format (it is essentially derived from a notebook he kept while in England). Overall, this seminar serves to provide a strong overview of all the various cycling-oriented missions – access, education, safety, networks – going on throughout in England. A question and answer segment follows the lecture. Click to Play.
Transportation Infrastructure Investment: Past, Present, and Future
Presented by Congressman Earl Blumenauer
Affiliation: US Congress
October 26, 2007
Congressman Earl Blumenauer, Representative of Oregon's 3rd District, manages a broad scope of topics when discussing transportation infrasctructure. He provides an historical context for the values placed on resources such as land and water, and discusses how some have been nationally subsidized at the expense of others. He then pulls the discussion to a local level: he notes how Portland's strategies for growth, development, and revitalization have included innovative, sustainable policy. Over the years, Congressman Blumenauer has played an integral role in the growth of these transportation systems, and his current position puts him in a place to comment on the future. Thoughtful planning and active community involvement have directed the city's development, he notes, and it's important to empower citizens to understand the transportation system for themselves.
A robust question and answer segment follows his seminar. Click to Play.
A Review of Case Studies Exploring Pedestrians, Cyclists, and Transit Users' Exposure to Particulate Matter in Portland.
Presented by Alex Bigazzi and Miguel Figliozzi
Affiliation: Portland State University
February 3, 2012
Initial Assessment of Portland's Green Bike Boxes
Presented by Jennifer Dill and Chris Monsere
Affiliation: Portland State University
December 4, 2009
After two recent bicyclist deaths in Portland, occurring after vehicles "right hooked" the cyclists, the City of Portland installed nine green and three uncolored bike boxes at intersections in Portland, OR. PSU professors Jennifer Dill and Christopher Monsere (Urban Studies, and Civil and Environmental Engineering, respectively) conducted a before-and-after study of the safety effectiveness and perceived effectiveness of the bike boxes. Their testing methods involved video data analysis and surveys. The video analysis looked at both driver and cyclist behavior in the area around the bike boxes. The results presented in this seminar are still preliminary results. The video showed positive findings for motor vehicle encroachment in the bike boxes, but the conflicts – both before and after – were so limited in number that it's hard to tell if the findings are positive (it is still being analyzed). Two surveys were conducted – one with bicyclists, at the intersections; and one with motorists. The bicyclist survey tested usage and perceptions of safety, while the motorist survey tested familiarity with the bike boxes, as well as opinions on marking designs. Both the cyclist and motorist surveys showed positive findings for perceptions of safety in and around the bike boxes. View presentation slides.
Planning and Infrastructure
Low-Stress Bicyling and Bike Network Connectivity
Presented by Peter G. Furth, Professor of Civil and Environmental Engineering
Affiliation: Northeastern University
May 4, 2012
The most fundamental need in a bicycling network is low-stress connectivity, that is, providing routes between people’s origins and destinations that do not require cyclists to use links that exceed their tolerance for traffic stress, and that do not involve an undue level of detour. Evaluating network connectivity therefore requires both a set of criteria for tolerable levels of traffic stress and measures of connectivity appropriate to a bikeway network.
Furth proposes criteria by which road segments can be classified into four levels of traffic stress (LTS), corresponding to four levels of traffic tolerance in the population. LTS 1 is suitable for children; LTS 2, based on Dutch bikeway design criteria, represents the traffic stress that most adults will tolerate; LTS 3 and 4 represent greater levels of stress. As a case study, every street in San Jose, California was classified by LTS. Maps in which only lower stress links are displayed reveal a city fractured into low-stress islands separated from one another by barriers that can only be crossed using high stress links.
To measure connectivity, two points in the network are said to be connected at a given level of traffic stress if there is a path connecting them that uses only links that do not exceed that level of stress and whose length does not exceed a detour criterion (25% longer than the most direct path). For the network as a whole, demand-weighted connectivity is the fraction of trips in the regional trip table whose origin and destination are connected at a given level of stress. Demand data is disaggregated to the block level because traffic analysis zones (TAZs) are too coarse a geographic unit for evaluating connectivity by bicycle. In San Jose, for work trips up to 6 miles long , demand-weighted connectivity at LTS 2 was found to be 4.7%, providing a good explanation for the city’s low bicycling share. With a hypothetical slate of improvements totaling 32 miles in length but with strategically placed segments that provide low-stress connectivity across barriers, this measure of connectivity is almost tripled. Click to Play.
Bikes, Bodies, and Public Space: The Role of Human Infrastructure in Urban Transport
Presented by Adonia Lugo
Affiliation: UC Irvine
March 16, 2012
The bike movement in the United States tends to support infrastructural changes to streets. Reshaping the built environment is expected to stimulate behavior changes in road users. At the same time, this approach may overlook the transportation cultures of existing urban communities and raise concerns about displacement and gentrification. Based on ethnographic research and advocacy experiments in Los Angeles, Lugo proposes the concept of "human infrastructure" to describe the ways that social relationships impact how people experience the built environment. By taking both physical and human infrastructure into account, transportation planners and advocates can make social justice a key part of sustainability. Click to Play.
Lessons from Utrecht: Connecting Bicycle and Rail Networks
Presented by Ronald Tamse, City of Utrecht (Netherlands)
Affiliation: Portland State University / University of Oregon Visiting Scholar
October 21, 2011
Ronald Tamse is a traffic engineer for the city of Utrecht, The Netherlands. Ronald has been involved in traffic design in Amsterdam and Utrecht. He is most interested in bicycle and rail transportation. He has worked on the design of the Amsterdam subway, a light rail system in Utrecht, and is currently working on urban transportation solutions as Utrecht Centraal is redeveloped. Utrecht Centraal is the largest train station in The Netherlands.
Ronald's presentation highlights key examples from Utrecht that show some new ideas, similarities between the Dutch and American approaches, as well as a few lessons imported from Portland. These examples share highlights from major projects that include building a new commuter railway network, including the rebuilding of Utrecht Centraal railway station, and the development of a light rail line in Utrecht that uses MAX as a development model.
In addition, Ronald demonstrates the importance of connecting bike infrastructure through network planning, infrastructure, and connections to transit. Click to Play.
Emerging Trends in Developing and Implementing Bicycle Master Plans – The Seattle Example
Presented by Peter Lagerway
Affiliation: Toole Design Group
September 30, 2011
Using the Seattle Bicycle Master Plan as a model, this presentation provides a roadmap for developing and implementing bicycle master plans.
Toole Design Group (TDG) served as the prime consultant for the City of Seattle Bicycle Master Plan. In partnership with the City, TDG took a diverse approach to public involvement, including working with a Citizen’s Advisory Committee and local advocacy groups, conducting an online survey, and conduction highly successful public input meetings that were attended by hundreds of people.
The project involved extensive GIS and field analysis, and the development of specific recommendations for street reconfigurations and wayfinding signs for a 450-mile network of on and off-street facilities. The project included design innovations such as shared-lane markings, up-hill bike lanes, buffered bike lanes, and new warning and wayfinding signs. It also included new thinking on right-of-way assignment and the design of trail street crossings. In addition, TDG developed bicycle facility design guidelines recommendations for education and enforcement programs to support and encourage bicycling, and policies for integrating bicycle considerations into all City projects and programs.
The Plan focused heavily on implementation and included funding strategies as well as a timeline and phasing approach for the completion of recommendations from the Plan. The Plan set performance measures and provided cost estimates for implementation. Since adoption, more than 150 miles of on and off road bicycle facilities (including signed routes) have been installed, representing 30% of the network proposed by the Plan. Click to Play.
Applying Health Impact Assessment to Bicycle and Pedestrian Planning
Presented by Brendon Haggerty
Affiliation: Clark County Public Health
October 22, 2010
As part of Clark County Public Health’s Planning Active Walkable Neighborhoods project, a Health Impact Assessment (HIA) was conducted on the county’s Bicycle and Pedestrian Master Plan. A rapid HIA was completed to provide input on the draft plan, and a subsequent comprehensive HIA was designed to evaluate the impacts of final proposals. This presentation will provide an overview of the process and results of the HIA, examine lessons learned, and discuss transferability to other jurisdictions or projects. Click to Play.
Bikeability and the Twenty-Minute Neighborhood: Exploring How Infrastructure and Destinations Influence Bicycle Accessibility
Presented by Nathan McNeil
Affiliation: Portland State University
October 8, 2010
This presentation explores a methodology for assessing a neighborhood’s bikeability based on its mix of infrastructure and destinations. The new methodology seeks to create an objective bikeability assessment – essentially asking if a place could be considered a 20-minute neighborhood by bike. The method was developed in part in an effort to integrate transportation infrastructure and land use factors into a bikeability assessment. In its application, the process can be used to explore where planned (or hypothetical) infrastructure or development may be most helpful and which neighborhoods may not be receiving much added value from the planned improvements. Click to Play.
Portland's Cycle Track and Buffered Bike Lanes: Are they working?
Presented by Chris Monsere and Nathan McNeil
Affiliation: Portland State University
February 25, 2011
Findings are presented on an evaluation of two innovative bicycle facilities installed in late summer and early fall 2009 in downtown Portland aimed at providing a more separated and comfortable experience for cyclists. The SW Broadway cycle track (near PSU) and the couplet of buffered bike lanes on SW Stark and SW Oak were evaluated to understand how they are functioning on multiple levels. Each facility involved removing a motor vehicle lane by restriping to provide additional roadway space to bicyclists. The facilities were evaluated after they had been in place for approximately one year. Data collected to support this evaluation consisted of surveys of multiple user groups for each facility type, and video data collected by the City of Portland Bureau of Transportation at intersections along each of the routes to understand the facilities' impact on traffic flow, operations and user interactions. Click to Play.
Beyond the Bike Hook: Linking Bicycles and Transit
Presented by Colin Maher
January 28, 2011
While TriMet and other transit agencies serve many commuters by having racks for bikes on trains and buses, large bike parking facilities in global capitals of urban bicycling provide the key link between bikes and transit. Following the lead of European and Asian cities, the Portland region is starting to develop a network of bike-transit facilities; TriMet is piloting smart bike parking technology in the form of electronic bike lockers and "Bike & Rides". This presentation discusses the background and planning for bike-transit integration in the region and shares insights into bike-transit travel patterns, habits, and market segmentation gained from recent rider surveys. Click to Play.
Attracting the Next 10% of Cyclists with the Right Infrastructure
Presented by Glen Koorey
Affiliation: University of Canterbury, Christchurch, New Zealand
August 25, 2010
Although considered a cycling centre in New Zealand, Christchurch still has relatively low cycle use (e.g. ~7% of commuters) but huge potential for utilitarian cycling due to its favourable geography. There is continuing, but relatively small, investment in infrastructure for cyclists, yet evidence seems to suggest little if any growth in cycle numbers. Therefore, on behalf of the NZ Transport Agency, research at the University of Canterbury assessed the barriers to cycle use, with a specific focus on the infrastructure needed to attract the next tier of people who do not cycle regularly for utility trip purposes. The research surveyed workplaces, recreational cyclists and community groups to identify potential (but not current) regular utility cyclists. Focus groups were held with them to discuss the motivations and barriers for cycling. Click to Play.
Developing a Bicyclist Route Choice Model Using GPS Data
Presented by Joe Broach
Affiliation: Portland State University
May 28, 2010
Existing regional travel forecasting systems are not typically set up to forecast usage of bicycle infrastructure and are insensitive to bicyclists' route preferences in general. We collected revealed preference, GPS data on 162 bicyclists over the course of several days and coded the resulting trips to a highly detailed bicycle network model. We then use these data to estimate bicyclist route choice models. As part of this research, we developed a sophisticated choice set generation algorithm based on multiple permutations of labeled path attributes, which seems to out-perform comparable implementations of other route choice set generation algorithms. The model was formulated as a Path-Size Logit model to account for overlapping route alternatives. The estimation results show compelling intuitive elasticities for route choice attributes, including the effects of distance and delay; avoiding high-volumes of vehicular traffic, stops and turns, and elevation gain; and preferences for certain bike infrastructure types, particularly at bridge crossings and off-street paths. Estimation results also support segmentation by commute versus non-commute trip types, but are less clear when it comes to gender. The final model will be implemented as part of the regional travel forecasting system for Portland, Oregon, U.S.A. View presentation slides.
Portland is Good, but Copenhagen and Amsterdam are Awesome: Lessons Learned from the World's Best Cycling Cities
Presented by Mia Birk, Rob Burchfield, Jay Graves
Affiliations (respectively): Alta Planning + Design, City of Portland, Bike Gallery
November 21, 2009
An all-star delegation from Portland visited Amsterdam and Copenhagen to obtain a first-hand look at the innovative on-street bicycle infrastructure and treatments in those cities. They were lead on these tours by some of the local bicycle coordinators. In this seminar, the presenters run through pictures from their tours, focusing especially on cycle tracks, signals, intersection treatment, and much more. Mia also discusses how a previous trip, in the mid-90s, greatly influenced her work for the City of Portland. Click to Play.
Promoting Safe Walking and Cycling to Improve Public Health: Lessons from Europe
Presented by John Pucher
Affiliation: University of Rutgers
Visit sponsored by OTREC
September 28, 2007
Rutgers University professor John Pucher (or, he refers to himself, "Car-free John") kicks off this year's Seminar Series to a packed room. His presentation examines a range of public health impacts of our urban transport systems. His points are illustrated with an extensive collection of graphs and data. He argues that the current car-dependence of American cities is responsible for enormous environmental harm, social isolation, lack of physical activity, and traffic dangers. To overcome these negative impacts, it is crucial to improve the convenience, safety, and attractiveness of walking and cycling.
Professor Pucher discusses and illustrates the many specific policies and programs used in Europe, where he worked for a number of years, and proposes their widespread adoption in American cities. The points are accompanied by photographic examples from all over the world. An informative question and answer session follows this exciting presentation. Click to Play.
Download the PDF of John Pucher's PowerPoint presentation!
Rails-with-trails: issues related to safety, design, planning, and implementation of trails next to active railway lines
Presented by Mia Birk
Affiliation: Alta Planning and Design
May 2, 2003
Mia Birk returns a few months later to discuss in detail a key element that she touched upon in her previous seminar on Rails-with-Trails.
Mia discusses a four-year study completed by Alta Planning and Design, and published by USDOT, about rails-with-trails planning and development. In this in-depth presentation, she lays out issues and discusses lessons learned from her experience with the study, and from her own personal experience in this facet of urban planning.
Topics from the study include literature reviews, in-depth analyses of 18 case studies, railroad industry interviews, reviewed draft reports, design research, legal symposium and research, outreach, integration of commentary.
The areas surrounding railroads are often prime locations for trails. Mia provides recommendations for both railway managers and trail planners and designers for how all parties can work together to improve their landscape. Click to Play.
Portland Regional Trails Program
Presented by Mel Huie
October 17, 2003
The Portland Metro area is abundant with parks, greenspaces, and recreational and commuter trails. In this seminar Mel Huie provides a broad view of the region's varied systems. He details it all with maps, examples, descriptions of their various functions within neighborhoods. He discusses how to plan, design, construct, and manage environmentally-friendly trails. And he discusses guidelines to help protect water and habitat resources, acquire permits, and follow greenway requirements. Click to Play.
Bicycle and Pedestrian Trails: Planning to Implementation
Presented by Michael Rose and George Hudson
Affiliation: Alta Planning and Design
January 27, 2006
George Hudson, trail designer with Alta Planning and Design (and instructor of the upcoming IBPI-sponsored workshop on Trail Design), begins this seminar by laying down the general process of planning for trails. Some details include feasibility and master planning, establishing goals and objectives, meeting community needs, working with local agencies, data collection, and field work. He also goes through the timeline of work: conceptual design, permitting, design and drawings, bidding, and finally construction. He makes sure to go into detail on every point, and he identifies specific issues that relate to different contexts.
Michael Rose, also of Alta, delivers the second half of the seminar. He discusses the specific implementation the Clark County Wetlands Park, a trail project that Alta is currently working on in the Las Vegas area. He goes into the specific of planning the trail. He discusses route and their uses, how best to implement then, and how to make them work together and with the surrounding landscape. Click to Play.
Getting Around on Foot Action Plan
Presented by Stephanie Routh
Affiliation: Willamette Pedestrian Coalition
February 18, 2011
Quantifying Walkability - Toward an Objective and Reliable Measure of the Pedestrian Environment
Presented by Jamie Parks
Affiliation: Kittelson Associates, Inc.
November 17, 2006
In this seminar, Jamie Parks of Kittleson Associates, presents innovative measures for quantifying walkability. His studies, all conducted in the Chicago area, have been refigured from previous research so as to control data collection, reduce unnecessary information and work, and find and alleviate the weaknesses in current methods. His new methods attempt to make the data more objective, less expensive to collect, and still reliable on widely available data. With a robust question and answer segment, Parks presents a thorough and knowledgeable seminar on this important topic. Click to Play.
Walk this Way: New Tools for Measuring Walkability and Some Findings on Middle School Transportation Behavior
Presented by Marc Schlossberg
Affiliation: University of Oregon
February 10, 2006
Due to the proliferation of handheld GIS devices in recent years, we're witness to the growth of a new field for quantifying walkability. In this seminar, Marc Schlossberg presents details on these new tools for measuring walkability and transportation behavior. He begins with an overview of street-based walkability measures, and shows how they've been applied to transit-oriented developments and schools. He also provides additional results on middle school travel. He goes on to discuss the relationship between physical activity and the urban form.
He looks at different road types and characteristics, and uses those definitions to differentiate between pedestrian and auto-oriented roads.
Finally, he presents a detailed look at capturing and making use of GIS data. Click to Play.