"The city and province of Siena hold lessons in sustainable community, sense of place, urban and rural connections, and landscape preservation that can inform efforts elsewhere. City-country ties are strong in Tuscany, from medieval and Renaissance traditions and regulations that linked rural and urban life, to land-use regulations that are analogous to contemporary urban growth management. Walled towns and cities, combined with strict regulation of rural land development, protect the Tuscan countryside from most development. Farm and forest landscapes undergo changes in reaction to agricultural market conditions and proximity to urban centers, yet efforts to preserve amenity landscapes remain strong. In Tuscany, the preservation of city and country landscapes that are attractive to tourists (who are primarily urban) is critical to local economies."
Quote taken from Dr. Thomas Harvey's journal article: Siena and Sustainability: City and Country in Tuscany published in 2007 at Terrain.org