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Some of the key references that have informed our research are listed below


Adamus, P., J. Morlan, and K. Verble. 2009. Manual for the Oregon Rapid Wetland Assessment Protocol (ORWAP). Version 2.0. Oregon Dept. of State Lands, Salem. http://oregonstatelands.us/DSL/WETLAND/or_wet_prot.shtml.

Adger, W N, K Brown and E L Tompkins 2006. The Political Economy of Cross-Scale Networks in
Resource Co-Management. Ecology & Society 10(2):9.

Agrawal A, and K. Redford. 2006. Poverty, Development, and Biodiversity Conservation: Shooting in the Dark? Wildlife Conservation Society, New York.

Alcamo, J., D. v. Vuuren, C. Ringler, W. Cramer, T. Masui, J. Alder, and K. Schulze. 2005. Changes in nature’s balance sheet: model-based estimates of future worldwide ecosystem services. Ecology and Society 10:Art. 19.

Anselin L, I. Syabri, and Y. Kho 2006. GeoDa: An introduction to spatial data analysis. Geographical Analysis 38(1):5-22.

Battin, J., M.W. Wiley, M.H. Ruckelshaus, R.N. Palmer, E. Korb, K.K. Bartz, and H. Imaki. 2007. Projected impacts of climate change on salmon habitat restoration. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 104:6720-6725.

Bennett, Elena M., Garry D. Peterson, and Line J. Gordon. 2009. Understanding relationships among multiple ecosystem services. Ecology Letters 12 (12): 1394-1404.

Berg, B.L. 2004. Qualitative Research Methods for the Social Sciences, 5th ed. Pearson: Boston. Bockstael, N.E., Freeman, A.M., Kopp, R.J., Portney, P.R. & Smith, V.K. 2000, On Measuring Economic Values for Nature, Journal of Environmental Science & Technology, 34(8): 1384-1389.

Boeder, M. and H. Chang. 2008. Multi-scale analysis of oxygen demand trend in an urbanizing Oregon watershed. Journal of Environmental Management 87(4): 567-581.

Boyd, M.S. 1996. Heat Source: stream temperature prediction. Master’s Thesis. Departments of Civil and
Bioresource Engineering, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon.

Broussard, W. and R.E. Turner. 2009. A century of changing land-use and water quality relationships in the continental US. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 7:302-307.

Brown, CJ and M Purcell 2005. There’s nothing inherent about scale: political ecology, the local trap, and
the politics of development in the Brazilian Amazon. Geoforum 36: 607-624.

Cash, D. W., W. N. Adger, F. Berkes, P. Garden, L. Lebel, P. Olsson, L. Pritchard, and O. Young, 2006: Scale and cross-scale dynamics: Governance and information in a multilevel world. Ecology and Society, 11, 12.

Chang, H. 2008a. Spatial analysis of water quality trends in the Han River basin, South Korea. Water Research 42: 3285-3304.

Chang, H. 2008b. Teaching water sustainability through visuals and student-based learning. Oregon English Journal 30(2): 48-51.

Chang, H. and Jung, I-W. 2010. Spatial and temporal changes in runoff caused by climate change in a large complex river basin. Journal of Hydrology 388(3-4): 186-207.

Cox, M.M., and J.P. Bolte. 2007. A spatially explicit network-based model for estimating stream temperature distribution. Environmental Modeling and Software, 22: 502-514.

Cramer, W., A. Bondeau, F. I. Woodward, I. C. Prentice, R. A. Betts, V. Brovkin, P. M. Cox, V. Fisher, J. A. Foley, A. D. Friend, C. Kucharik, M. R. Lomas, N. Ramankutty, S. Sitch, B. Smith, A. White, and C. Young-Molling. 2001. Global response of terrestrial ecosystem structure and function to CO2 and climate change: results from six dynamic global vegetation models. Global Change Biology 7:357- 373.

Cumming, G. S., D. H. M. Cumming, and C. L. Redman, 2006: Scale mismatches in social-ecological systems: Causes, consequences, and solutions. Ecology and Society 11: 14.

Daily, GC, Ed. 1997. Nature’s Services: Societal Dependence on Natural Ecosystems, Island Press, Washington, DC .

Davis, C. 2006. A Synthesis of Data and Methods across Scales to Connect Local Policy Decisions to Regional Environmental Conditions The Case of the Cascadia Scorecard. In W.V. Reid, F. Berkes, T. Wilbanks, D. Capistrano (eds). Bridging scales and knowledge systems. Concepts and applications in ecosystem assessment. Island Press, Washington, D.C.

de Chazal, J. and M.D.A. Rounsevell. 2009. Land-use and climate change within assessments of biodiversity change: A review. Global Environmental Change 19: 306-315

DeFries, R. S., J. A. Foley, and G. P. Asner. 2004. Land-use choices: balancing human needs and ecosystem function. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 2(5): 249-257.

Deschenes, O. and M. Greenstone. 2007. The economic impacts of climate change: Evidence from agricultural output and random fluctuations in weather, American Economic Review, 97( 1): 354-385.

Duh, J., Shandas, V., Chang, H., and George, L. 2008. Rates of urbanization and the resilience of air and water quality. Science of the Total Environment 400 (1-3): 238-256

Easterling, W.E. and C. Polsky. 2004. Crossing the Divide: Linking Global and Local Scales in Human- Environment Systems. Sheppard E. and R.B. McMaster, eds. In Scale and Geographic Inquiry: Nature, Society, and Method. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing.

Ervin, D., C. Runge, E. Graffy, W. Anthony, S. Batie, P. Faeth, T. Penny, and T. Warman, 1998, Agriculture and the Environment: A New Strategic Vision, Environment, 40 (6): 8-15, 35-40.

Ervin, D. 2005. Key Issues: Evaluation of Payments – Mid-term Evaluation of Rural Development Plans, in Evaluating Agri-Environmental Policies: Design, Practice and Results, OECD. Paris.

Fisher, A, M. Hanemann, M. J. Roberts, and W. Schlenker. 2009. Climate Change and Agriculture Reconsidered. Accessed at http://www.columbia.edu/~ws2162/agClimateChange.html.

Fisher, B., K. Turner, M. Zylstra, et al. 2008. Ecosystem Services and Economic Theory: Integration for Policy-Relevant Research. Ecological Applications 18(8): 2050-2067.

Fitzpatrick, J.J., Imhoff, J.C., Burgess, E.H. and Brashear, R.W. 2001. Assessment of Use of Hydrodynamic, Land-based Runoff, and Fate and Transport Models. Project 99-WSM-5 Final Report. Published by the Water Environment Federation, Alexandria, VA.

Fotheringham, A. S., C. Brunsdon, and M. Charlton. 2000. Quantitative Geography: Perspectives on Spatial Data Analysis. Sage Publications.

Francyk J. and H. Chang, 2009. Spatial analysis of Oregon water use, 1985-2005, Water Resources Management. 23(4): 755-774.

Frost, P.G.H. and I. Bond. 2008. The CAMPFIRE programme in Zimbabwe: Payments for wildlife services. Ecological Economics 65: 776-787

Gassman, P.W., Reyes, M.R., Green, C.H. and Arnold, J.G. 2007. The soil and water assessment tool: Historical development, applications, and future research directions. Transactions of the ASABE 50: 1211-1250.

Ghazoul, J. 2007. Challenges to the Uptake of the Ecosystem Service Rationale for Conservation. Conservation Biology 21 (6): 1651-1652.

HDR Engineering. April, 2008. Yamhill County Water Supply Analysis – Final Report to the Yamhill County Water Task Force.

Hanley, N., Shogren, J and White, B. 1997. Environmental economics in theory and practice. Macmillan, Basingstoke.

Hansen L, and D. Hellerstein. 2006. Conservation Program Design: Better Targeting, Better Outcomes, Economic Brief, U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Economic Research Service.

Hansen, A.J., R.L. Knight, J.M. Marzluff, S. Powell, K. Brown, P. Gude, and K. Jones. 2005. Effects of exurban development on biodiversity: patterns, mechanisms, and research needs. Ecological Applications 15(6): 1893-1905

Harris, J. M. 2006. Environmental and Natural Resource Economics. South Western. Cengage Learning. 2nd edition.

Hayhoe, K., D. Cayan, C. B. Field, P. C. Frumhoff, E. P. Maurer, N. L. Miller, S. C. Moser, S. H. Schneider, K. N. Cahill, E. E. Cleland, L. Dale, R. Drapek, R. M. Hanemann, L. S. Kalkstein, J. Lenihan, C. K. Lunch, R. P. Neilson, S. C. Sheridan, and J. H. Verville. 2004. Emissions pathways, climate change, and impacts on California. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 101:12422-12427.

Higgins, P.A.T. 2007. Biodiversity loss under existing land use and climate change: an illustration using northern South America. Global Ecology and Biogeography 16: 197-204.

Hutchinson, C.F., J.D. Unruh, and C.J. Bahre. 2000. Land use vs. climate change as causes of vegetation change: a study in SE Arizona. Global Environmental Change 10: 47-55.

Hulse, D., S. Gregory and J. Baker, eds. 2002. Willamette River Basin Planning Atlas: Trajectories of Environmental and Ecological Change. OSU Press, Corvallis.

Imhoff, J.C, J.L. Kittle Jr., M.R. Gray, and T.E. Johnson, 2007. Using the Climate Assessment Tool (CAT) in U.S. EPA BASINS integrated modeling system to assess watershed vulnerability to climate change. Water Science and Technology 56: 49-56

Jackson, R.B., E.G. Jobbagy, R Avissar et al. 2005. Trading Water for Carbon with Biological Carbon Sequestration. Science 310: 1944-1947.

Kareiva, P and M. Marvier. 2007. Conversation for the people - Pitting nature and biodiversity against people makes little sense. Many conservationists now argue that human health and well-being should be central to conservation efforts. Scientific American 297 (4): 50-57

Kareiva, P.K., H. Tallis, T.H. Ricketts, G.C. Daily, and S. Polasky. 2011. Natural Capital: theory & practice of mapping ecosystem services. Oxford University Press, Oxford, United Kingdom.

Keitt, J.H. 2009. Habitat conversion, extinction thresholds, and pollination services in agroecosystems. Ecological Applications: 19:1561-1573.

Knoche, S. and F. Lupi. 2007. Valuing deer hunting ecosystem services from farm landscapes. Ecological Economics 64: 313-320.

Koniak, G. and I. Noy-Meir. 2009. A hierarchical, multi-scale, management-responsive model of Mediterranean vegetation dynamics. Ecological Modelling 220:1148-1158.

Kremen, C. 2005. Managing ecosystem services: what do we need to know about their ecology? Ecology Letters 8: 468-479

Lam, N.S-N. 2004.Fractals and Scale in Environmental Assessment and Monitoring. Sheppard E. and R.B. McMaster, eds. In Scale and Geographic Inquiry: Nature, Society, and Method. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing.

Lambrinos, J.G. and Guzy, M. 2009. Linking landowners to ecosystem service markets using web-based quantification tools. Annual Meeting Ecological Society of America. Albuquerque, NM.

Lawler, J.J., Shafer, S.L., White, D., Kareiva, P., Maurer, E.P., Blaustein, A.R. & Bartlein, P.J. 2009b, Projected climate-induced faunal change in the Western Hemisphere. Ecology 90(3) 588-597.

Lawler, J.L., T.H. Tear, C. Pyke M.R. Shaw, et al. 2010. Resource management in a changing and uncertain climate. Frontiers in Ecology and Environment 8: 35–43.

Lebel, L, P Garden and M Imamura 2006. The politics of scale, position and place in the governance of water resources in the Mekong region. Ecology and Society 10(2): 18.

Lewis, David J., Andrew J. Plantinga, Erik Nelson, Stephen Polasky. 2010. The Efficiency of Voluntary Incentive Policies for Preventing Biodiversity Loss. Resource and Energy Economics 33: 192-211.

Lobell, D. B., and C. B. Field. 2007. Global scale climate–crop yield relationships and the impacts of recent warming. Environmental Research Letters 2: 014002.

Luedeling E., Zhang, M., Girvetz, EH. 2009. Climatic Changes Lead to Declining Winter Chill for Fruit and Nut Trees in California during 1950–2099. PLoS ONE 4(7): e6166.

Manson, S. M., H.A. Sander, D. Ghosh, J. M. Oakes, M. W. Orfield, W. J. Craig, T. F. Luce, E. Myott, S. Sun (2009). Parcel data for research and policy. Geography Compass 3 (2): 698–726.

Mendelsohn, R. & Dinar, A. 2009, Land Use and Climate Change Interactions, Annual Review of Resource Economics, 1(1)

Mendelsohn, R., Nordhaus, W.D. & Shaw, D. 1994, The Impact of Global Warming on Agriculture: A Ricardian Analysis, The American Economic Review, 84(4): 753-771.

Metzger, M.J., D. Schroter, R. Leemans, W.Cramer. 2008. A spatially explicit and quantitative vulnerability assessment of ecosystem service change in Europe. Regional Environmental Change 8:91-107

Munoz-Pina, C., A. Guevara, J.M. Torres and J. Brana. 2008. Paying for the hydrological services of Mexico’s forests: Analysis, negotiations and results. Ecological Economics 65: 725-736.

Millenium Ecosystem Assessment. 2005. Ecosystems and Human Well-being: Synthesis. Island Press, Washington D.C.

Naidoo, R. and T.H. Ricketts. 2006. Mapping the Economic Costs and Benefits of Conservation. PloS Biol 4(11): e360
National Research Council (NRC). 2005. Valuing Ecosystem Services: Toward better environmental decision-making. The National Academies Press. Washington DC.

Nature Editorial Board. 2009. Natural value (Editorial). Nature 457: 764.

Nelson, E., Polasky, S., Lewis, D.J., Plantinga, A.J., Lonsdorf, E., White, D., Bael, D. & Lawler, J.J. 2008. Efficiency of incentives to jointly increase carbon sequestration and species conservation on a landscape. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 105(28): 9471-9476.

Nelson, E. G. Mendoza, J. Regetz, et al. 2009. Modeling multiple ecosystem services, biodiversity conservation, commodity production, and tradeoffs at landscape scales. Frontiers in Ecology and Environment 7(1): 4-11

Nelson, K C, Palmer, M A, Pizzuto, J E, Moglen, G E, Angermeier, P L, Hilderbrand, R H, Dettinger, M D & Hayhoe, K 2009 Forecasting the combined effects of urbanization and climate chagne on stream ecosystems: from impacts to management options. Journal of Applied Ecology 46 154-63.

Nelson, K.C. and M.A. Palmer. 2007. Stream Temperature Surges Under Urbanization and Climate Change: Data, Models, and Responses. Journal of the American Water Resources Association 43(2): 440-452.

O'Brien, K., L. Sygna, and J. E. Haugen, 2004: Vulnerable or resilient? A multi-scale assessment of climate impacts and vulnerability in Norway. Climatic Change, 64: 193-225.

O’Neill, R.V., DeAngelis, D.L., Waide, J.B, Allen, T.F.H. 1986. A Hierarchical Concept of Ecosystems, Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Oregon Dept. of Environmental Quality (ODEQ). June 2009. Willamette Basin Rivers and Streams Assessment.
Oregon Dept. of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW). 2006. The Oregon Conservation Strategy.

Ozawa, C.P. 1996. Science in Environmental Conflicts. Sociological Perspectives, 39 (2): 219-230.

Palmer, M.A., D.P. Lettenmaier, N.L. Poff, S.L.Postel, B. Richter, Warner, R. 2009. Climate change and river ecosystems: Protection and adaptation options. Environmental Management. 44: 1053-1068.

Parkhurst, G.M., and J.F. Shogren. 2007. Spatial incentives to coordinate contiguous habitat. Ecological Economics 64: 344-355.

Pereira, H.M, T. Domingos and L. Vicente. 2005. Assessing Ecosystem Services at Different Scales in the Portugal Millenium Ecosystem Assessment. Chapter 3 in Reid, W.V. et al, 2005.

Pfirman, S. and the AC-ERE 2003, Complex Environmental Systems: Synthesis for Earth, Life, and Society in the 21st Century, A report summarizing a 10-year outlook in environmental research and education for the National Science Foundation, 68 pp.

Phillips, J.D. 2004. Independence, Contingency and Scale Linkage in Physical Geography. in Sheppard, E. and R.B. McMaster, eds. Scale and Geographic Inquiry: Nature, Society, and Method. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing.

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Polasky, S., Nelson, E., Camm, J., Csuti, B., Fackler, P., Lonsdorf, E., Montgomery, C., White, D., Arthur, J., Garber-Yonts, B., Haight, R., Kagan, J., Starfield, A. & Tobalske, C. 2008, Where to put things? Spatial land management to sustain biodiversity and economic returns, Biological Conservation, 141(6): 1505-1524.

Polasky, Stephen, Erik Nelson, Derric Pennington, and Kris Johnson. 2010. The Impact of Land-Use Change on Ecosystem Services, Biodiversity and Returns to Landowners: A Case Study in the State of Minnesota. Environmental and Resource Economics 48: 219-242.

Primozich, D. 2008. Developing the Willamette Ecosystem Marketplace. Willamette Partnership. http://www.willamettepartnership.org/

Primozich, D.,B. Cochran, M. Martin. 2009. Counting on the Environment—Creating Tools and a Framework for Ecosystem Markets. Oregon Insider. May, 2009.

Praskievicz, S. and Chang. H. Effects of climate change and urban development on runoff and water quality in the Tualatin River basin, Annals of the Association of American Geographers 101: 249-271. 

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